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'Lahore Resolution' or  'Pakistan Resolution' 

Originally the word ‘Pakistan’ was not mentioned in the ‘Lahore Resolution’, but the Hindu and the British Press dubbed the Lahore Resolution as the Pakistan Resolution. Quaid-e-Azam accpeted it and the word ‘Pakistan became synonymous with the Lahore Resolution.  

The Lahore Resolution subsequently known as ‘Pakistan Resolution’ was presided over by Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The resulution was moved by Mr. Fazlul Haq, the chief Minister of Bengal and seconded by Chaudhry Khaliq uzzaman. The following persons supported the resolution:  

1. Maulana Zafar Ali Khan (Punjab)  
2. Dr. Muhammad Alam (Punjab  
3. Haji Sir Abdullah Haroon (Sindh)  
4. Sardar Aurangzeb Khan (NWFP)  
5. I.I. Chundrigar (Bombay)  
6. Qazi Isa (Baluchistan)  
7. Syed Zakir Ali (U.P)  
8. Begum Muhammad Ali (U.P)  
9. Maulana Abdul Hamid (U.P)  
10. Nawab Ismail Khan (Bihar)  
11. Abdul Hamid Khan (Madras)  
12. Syed Abdur Raud Shah (C.P.)  

The Pakistan Resolution 1940:  

 On  23rd of March 1940, Muslim League held its Annual session in Lahore under the Presidentship of Quaid-e-Azam, Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The Quaid-e-Azam in his Presidential address made a detailed survey of the Indian political situation and asserted that India was never United. For centuries it was divided between Muslim India and Hindu Idnia and so would it remain in the future. The customs, traditions and the entire mode of civilization of these two people were different. They were different not only in their religious beliefs, but their entire outlook of life bore a different imprint. There were more shades of dissimilarity than those of similarity.  
 He said:  
 “The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter-dine together and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.  

 The stage was now set for the demand of a separate independent homeland for the Muslims of India. The Muslim public opinion following the congress rule in the Muslim minority provinces proved beyond any doubt that the rights and privileges of Muslims could not be protected under a parliamentary form of government. If had seen that the brute rulers tyrannical in their behavior, and in the absence of any administrative experience they acted in a manner that could not be expected of a democratic society.  

 The Lahore session of the Muslim League was convened when the memory of the Khaksar tragedy in the Punjab was still fresh. The Quaid-e-Azam cancelled all the programmes of public pomp and show.The session was held in the open space of Minto Park (now Iqbal Part) under the enlarging shadows of the minarets of the Badshahi Masjid and the Lahore Fort. Lakhs of people from all over India gathered at Lahore to pay homage to their leaders and listen to the fateful decision, the All India Muslim League was to make.   

 On March 23, 1940 in a packed pindal Maulvi Fazl-ul-Haq, the chief Minister of Bengal moved the following resolution: 
The Resolution: 

“While approving and endorsing the   action taken by the council and the working committee of the All-India Muslim League as indicated in their resolutions dated the 27th of August, 17th and  18th of September and 22nd of October 1939 and 3rd of February 1940, on the constitutional issue, this session of the All India Muslim League emphatically reiterates and the scheme of Federation embodied in the Government of India Act, 1935, is totally unsuited to this country and is altogether unacceptable to Muslim India.”.   

 “It is further records its emphatic view that while the declaration dated the 18th of October, 1939, made by the viceroy on behalf of his Majesty’s government is reassuring in so far as it declares that the policy and plan on which the Government of India Act, 1935 is based will be reconsidered in consultation with the various parties interest and communities in India. Muslim India will not be satisfied unless the whole constitutional plan is considered de novo sand that no revised plan would be acceptable to the Muslims unless it is framed with their approval and consent”.   

 “Resolved that it is the considered view of this session of the All-India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principles. That geographically contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary, that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute ‘independent states’ in which the constituted units shall be autonomous and sovereign”.   

 “That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards should be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in these units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural economic, political administrative and other rights of interests in consultation with them and in other parts of India where the mussalmans are in a minority adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for them and other minorities for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights and interest in consultation with them”.   

 “This session further authorises the working committee to frame a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles, providing for the assumption finally, by the respective Regions of all powers and such other matters as may be necessary”.   

 A day earlier on 22nd March 1940, Quaid-e-Azam delivered an extempore presidential address in the opening session of the All India Muslim League in which he empahsised the necessity of a separate homeland for the Muslims of the Sub-continent.   

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