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                                        PAKISTAN BASIC FACTS   

   Capital Cities     Archeaological Sites

   Geographical Facts    Mountain Peaks

   Rivers      Glaciers

   Deserts      Lakes

   Major Dams    Administrative  Setup

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan emerged as an independent State on 14 August 1947. It comprises four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier and Baluchistan, besides the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Islamabad is the federal capital. Over 97 per cent of the country's population is Muslim.

Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 lying between latitude 24 degree and 37 degree North and longitude 62 degree and 75 degree East. The country borders Iran on the West, while India in the east, Afghanistan in the north and north-west and the People's Republic of China in the north-west to north east.

Climatically, Pakistan enjoys a considerable measure of variety. North and north- western high mountain ranges are extremely cold in winter while the summer months from April to September are very pleasant. The vast plains of the Indus Valley are extremely hot in summer and have cold weather in winter. The coastal strip in the South has a temperate climate. There is general deficiency in the rainfall. In the plains the annual average ranges from 13 cm. In the northern parts of the lower Indus plains to 89 cm. In the Himalayan region. Rains are monsoonal in origin and fall late in summer.

Capital Cities

Islamabad (The Federal Capital of Pakistan)

Islamabad lies at the base of the Margalla Hills adjacent to Rawalpindi, Punjab, on the north side. It became Pakistan's capital in 1959. The ground breaking started in October 1961. In relatively short span, Islamabad has become one of the most impressive capitals in the world, exuding hope and confidence in Pakistan's future.

Karachi (The capital of Sindh Province)

The capital city of Sindh was the capital city of Pakistan until 1959 and birth place of the Quaid-I-Azam. Karachi rubs shoulders with most of the industrialised cities of the world, boasting massive business and commercial centres, tall buildings and beautiful beaches. Karachi, the main seaport of Pakistan also serves as Naval Centre and houses Pakistan National Shipping Corporation.

Lahore (The capital of Punjab Province)

The Capital of Punjab is historical city which proudly hosted the passing of Pakistan Resolution in 1940 by Muslims League under the inspiring leadership of Quaid-I- Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Lahore is also a proud custodian of Pakistan's historical and cultural heritage. Being the centre of cultural and literary activities it may rightly be called the cultural capital of Pakistan. The warm and receptive people of Lahore are known for their traditional hospitality.

Peshawar (The capital of Frontier Province)

Boasting of rich and varied traditions and culture, Peshawar the capital of NWFP, is city of lion-hearted people, the proud Pathans.
Like other main citites, Peshawar also houses impressive historical places, like Qissakhwani Bazar, Masjid Mahabat Khan.

Quetta (The capital of Balochistan Province)

Nestling in the picturesque valley between the Murad and Chiltan mountains, Quetta, the capital of Balochistan, is located on the cross-roads leading towards Iran. Quetta takes pride in producing onyx, and onyx-products, and a variety of juicy and dry fruits. Pakistan is a land of many splendours, with rich cultrual heritage and scenic beauty. With a varied terrain ranging from the snow-capped mountains in the north to the sunny beaches in the south, Pakistan abounds in tourist attractions.

What makes Quetta and Ziarat valleys the tourists' attraction is that the former is rich in archaeological sites while the latter is surrounded by one of the oldest Juniper forests in the world. Some trees are well over 5,000 years old. In addition, fruit orchards, spread in acres, provide a variety of delicious fruits as apple, black cherry, plums, peaches, pomegranate, apricots, olives etc, and enhance to the beauty of the valleys.


Murree is one of the most picturesque and well-developed hill station of Pakistan. Recently added, for the tourists, Patriata chair lifts have enhanced the beauty of the Valley. In its close proximity are Galliat which represent nature in its purest and beautiful form.

Northern Areas

The string of beautiful valleys and mountains in the Northern Areas include, Swat, Hunza, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit. These area are so charming and enticing that they represent paradise on earth. The People are simple, innocent and large-hearted.

Hanna Lake

The seasonal water reservoir for the city of Quetta, Hanna Lake is ideal place for fishing and boating in the summar months.


Pakistan's archaeological sites are located at a number of places such as Moenjodaro, Harappa, Kot Diji, Taxila, Chakwal, Takht Bahi, Quetta, Dir and Swat. These remined one of the remote past starting from the Stone Age down to the prechistoric Indus Valley Civilization and further closer to our times.

Harappa and Moenjodaro

The ancient twin cities of Harappa and Moenjodaro are relics of glorious Indus Civilization. These represent the earlier symbols of civilized society and our living proofs that earlier civilization was aware of need of cloths, utensils, pottery, well-aired rooms, well-conceived drainage system asnd sanitation.

Kot Diji

Discovered in late fifties, Kot Diji, 40 km east of Moenjodaro on the left bank, is one of the earliest sites with a wall four to five metres high. This discovery gave new evidence of pre-Harappan culture and pushed back Pakistan's history by another 500 years.


Taxila is not just one site, in fact, it is combination of several cities built and destroyed over hundreds of years among beautiful hills, Taxila Museum houses some of the finest specimens of Gandhara sculpture, gold ornaments and scientific instruments. Taxila was site of a great centre of Buddhist learning as well.

Rohtas Fort

The Rohtas Fort, near Jhelum, was built by Sher Shah Suri and his descendants in 16th century. One important aim of its construction was to subdue the Gakhars who had refused to bow before Sher Shah Suri at the cost of their vows of friendship to the Mughals.

Khewra Salt Ranges

Lying in proximity of river Jhelum, the Salt Ranges are said to be world's oldest and largest mines producing finest quality of roch salt. Chakwal Valley The artefacts belonging to the Stone-Age have been found near village Dhoke Pathan at river Swan. The valley was inhabited by Dravidians around 1000 BC, followed in much later years by the Arians who settled around Katas. The relics of 10thg century have also been found there.


                                                      Area (Sq.Km)

Pakistan                                               796,095

Punjab                                                 205,344
Sindh                                                   140,914
NWFP                                                  74,521
Balochistan                                          347,190
FATA                                                   27,220
Islamabad (Capital)                                  906


Mountain Peaks                                            Height                                World Rating  

K-2 (Mount Godwin Austen)                     28,250 ft./8611 m.                     2nd
Naga Parbat                                              26,660 ft./8126 m                       8th
Gasherbrum-I                                           26,470 ft./8068  m                      11th


Rivers                                                  Length  

The Indus                                           1,800 miles

Jhelum                                                   513 miles

Chenab                                                  772 miles

Ravi                                                       560 miles

Sutlej                                                     964 miles

Beas (tributary of Sutlej)                     247 miles


Siachin                                                       75 km

Batura                                                        55 km

Baltora                                                        62 km


Thar (in Sindh)
Cholistan (in Punjab)
Thal (in Punjab)


Manchar (in Sindh)
Keenjhar (in Sindh)
Hanna (in Balochistan)
Saif-ul-Maluk (in NWFP)
Satpura (in Norther Areas)
Kachura (in Norther Areas)


Mangla Dam,
Tarbela Dam,
Warsak Dam.


Pakistan is a Parliamentary democracy: constitutionally composed of President, executive and judiciary. President is the head of the state and supreme commander of the Armed forces; Prime Minister

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