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16th Century (1500-1599) C.E.

1500:  In the Burji Mamluks empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat. 
1501:  Isamil I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion. 
1507:  The Portuguese under d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf. 
1508:  Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, End of the White Sheep dynasty and the annexation of their territories by the Safawids. 
1511:  D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims. 
1517:  The Ottoman Sultan Selim Yavuz ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks and conquers Egypt. 
1520:  The reign of Sulayman the Magnificent begins. 
1526:  Louis of Hungary dies at the Battle of Mohacs. 
1526:  The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra. 
1528:  The Ottomans take Buda in Hungary. 
1529:  Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna. 
1550:  The architect Sinan builds the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul. 
1550:  The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra. 
1550:  Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo. 
1556:  The death of Sulayman the Magnificent. 
1568:  Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism) in Spain. 
1571:  The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close. 
1578:  The Battle of the Three Kings at Qasr al-Kabir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed. 
1588:  Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I begins. 
1591:  Mustaili Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis. 
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