Pass, the largest and the most renowned of these, is 56 kilometres long
and connects Kabul in Afghanistan with the fertile vale of Peshawar in
the NWFP. The Tochi Pass connects Ghazni is Afghanistan with Bannu in Pakistan
and the Gomal Pass provides a route from Afghanistan to Dera Ismail Khan
which overlooks the Punjab Plain. the Bolan Pass connects the Sindh Plain
with Quetta in Balochistan and onward through Chaman with Afghanistan.
Enclosed by the brnahces of western mountains are a number of fertile plains
which have been formed by rivers rising from these mountains and falling
into Indus. From north to south are the vale of Peshawar (Kabul River),
Kohat Plain(Kohat River) and Bannu Plain (River Kurram and Tochi), Peshawar
valley covers some 2,200 sq. miles (5,698 sq.km) and is very fertile. It
is irrigated by a network of canals which are supplemented by water of
the Warsak Dam on Kabul River. Wheat, maize, sugarcane tobacco and sugarbeet
are cultivated in large quantities. Large industrial Plants have been established
at Peshawar, Mardan, Nowshera and Charsadda. The sugar mills at Mardan
and Charsadda are reported to be the largest in Asia. Kohat valley is uneven
and broken, but has fertile soil. The Tanda Dam on River Kohat supplemented
water of the tubewells and the small tanks formed by damming the rivers.
Wheat, barley, gram, maize, rice and melons are grown in substantial quantities.
Kohat (76,000), an important town, owes its significance as a marketing
centre and a cantonment. The Bannu lowland is made of sandy and gravelly
materials brought down by rivers, except for a small area near Bannu town
(43,000), which contains rich silt. Perenial irrigation, made possible
by the construction of the Kurram Garhi Dam on River Tochi, is confined
to the land between River Kurram and River Tochi. The Bannu plain produces
wheat, gram, maize, barely, rice and sugarcane. In unirrigated parts of
Kohat and Bannu plains are raised flat tailed sheep,camels and donkeys
and wool is the most important commerical crop.